LEADING EDGE EARLY WOOL PROCESSING
RAW WOOL CONTAMINANTS
Wool, nature’s best fibre provides us with unequalled natural properties, performance and luxury. These quality wools originate from many different countries, from the cool temperate regions of New Zealand and the United Kingdom, to the harsh extremes of Australia, South Africa and South America. ANDAR Advanced Natural Fibre Technology takes the variability offered by nature, grading, blending and cleaning the wool to optimise the value of the fibre for downstream processing.
ANDAR grading systems take the variability of wool, automating the sorting of fibres into like-types for specific processes. Two different systems are available, accommodating varying levels of automation and handling, either simple or highly complex, grading duties.
There are two types of fleece grading systems offered by ANDAR, the High Volume and the Medium Volume systems. The key difference between the two is related to the throughput of fleeces per hour. The automated systems put like-types together, defined by a predetermined set of parameters including micron and wool class. The advantage of an automated system is that it speeds up the process and accuracy of grading, while allowing full traceability of the wool from its source.
The High Volume Fleece Grading Line is designed to process around 900 fleeces. The plant comprises two inclined feed conveyors, one double classer workstation, one closed loop tilt tray conveyor, two loading conveyors, automated conveyor discharge bins, twin discharge hoppers and discharge conveyors.
This highly automated system allows tracking of individual fleeces into each bale. The detailed information allows database creation for a broad range of data to be collected, such as tracking an individual fleece from the farm to the customer.
This Medium Volume Fleece Grading Line is designed to process around 350 fleeces. The plant consists of a raising conveyor, a classer workstation with plant status information, a bin conveyor (complete with fleece sweeper) and 16 fleece storage bins.
The conveyance system is coordinated via PLC control and provides a comprehensive database of the wool types and individual grower information.
ANDAR offer a series of machines designed for specialist opening and cleaning duties of different wool types, prior to the scouring process. These greasy wool preparation machines are essential to open the wool and reduce contaminants within the scour, therefore increasing throughput and improving the quality of the finished product.
Short Wool Pro
Cleans heavily contaminated loose stock wool under 100mm (4 inches) prior to blending, and subsequently scouring. Such contaminants could be lime, dirt, seeds and dags. The batch hammer mill action, will extract the easily removable contaminants from the wool.
There are two types of the Short Wool Pro, the 4m grate model and 2m grate model. The difference being the 4m grate option which allows continuous use while cleaning. The 2m grate requires processing to stop while the grate is cleaned. Each model has a dag crusher variation handling a percentage of dags between 10% and 30%. Wools with over 30% dags would be processed via the specialist Dag Crusher Machine.
4m grate Short Wool Pro
Provides batch cleaning of heavily contaminated wools with continuous cleaning cycle.
2m grate Short Wool Pro
Provides batch cleaning for heavily contaminated wools. Scheduled stoppages for cleaning of the machine grate will be necessary.
Designed to open hardened tri-packed bales prior to entering the scour preparation area of the scour line. The Bale Breaker can either be a freestanding pre-treatment prior to the scour line, or can be integrated into the beginning of the scour preparation area. There are two types of Bale Breaker, the 4 flail and the 3 flail.
4 Flail Bale Breaker
Opens hardened tri-packed bales of longer and heavier wools, either as a pre-treatment or at the beginning of the scour preparation section of a scour line.
3 Flail Bale Breaker
Opens hardened tri-packed bales, either as a pre-treatment or at the beginning of the scour preparation section of a scour line.
The ANDAR Decotter will open cotted or matted fleeces. Each individual fleece is fed into the Decotter as an offline treatment. Treating this otherwise unusable wool allows it to be blended into the main wool flow. There are two sizes, the 13 pad and the 19 pad machines. Both sizes come as part of a Decotter system, including options of ducting and pneumatic transportation.
When the percentage of dags in the loose stock wool is more than 30%, this machine is recommended.
The ANDAR Dag Crusher will give a more severe treatment than the Short Wool Processor.
Electric Control System
Any of these machines can be controlled independently or collectively as an Opening and Pre-cleaning system. As a complete pre-treatment system prior to blending, a conveyance system would link the wool flows between the machines. Each of these specialist pre-opening treatments is fed individually and therefore the speed and control for each can be manipulated to suit desired wool blends and quantities.
ANDAR offers two styles of Blending systems. Each of these systems thoroughly mixes the different classes of wool to the specified blend required by the plant operator. By accurately producing the blend required by the customer to meet the desired specification for its intended use or increase the profitability of the scouring operation.
Specifically designed for Blending wools by micron and yield of similar length.
The bales are opened and evenly distributed in layers, within a large bin. Creating these varying layers over the entire length of the bin guarantees a well-mixed blend enters the scour. The layered fibre within the bin is continuously fed into a Feed Hopper. The Feed Hopper takes a vertical slice of the layered pile, mixes and opens the wool before feeding it into the scour preparation area.
This horizontal layering creates a homogenous blend, as the mixing is done both horizontally and vertically.
Specifically designed for blending wools of varying length by micron and yield. Many wool types can be opened simultaneously in a series of Feed Hoppers and offline openers.
A different wool type is in each Feed System. A measured volume of wool is provided by the weighbelt. The main conveyor collects the carefully measured volumes from each Feed System.
Layering the wools onto a conveyor, the wool mat is then machined with a Drum Opener to provide a homogenous blend of lengths and micron for further processing.
Cardmaster Prep Topmaster Prep
A vital component to the ANDAR scouring system is the raw wool preparation. This equipment is designed to provide a regulated feed of wool to the scour line. The appropriate selection of opening equipment is critical to preserving fibre length and reducing contaminants prior to the washing stage. The process integration is maximised through the use of a Weighbelt which regulates an accurate volume of wool through the system, while minimising process inputs and associated costs.
There are a series of machines used in different combinations to ensure the correct level of opening is performed depending on the wool type, while presenting a uniform wool mat to the scouring line.
Feed Hopper 1
The number one hopper presents the loose stock fibre from the bales or offline blending regulating the feed to downstream machines. There are two types of machines available as the number one hopper in scour preparation. The difference between the machines is based upon presentation of the raw product.
Wool from low-density bales or wool which has been pre-machined off line can be processed by the standard duty Feed Hopper and can enter the scourline without further opening being required.
Heavy Duty Feed Hopper
Designed primarily to provide bale opening where the use or addition of a Bale Breaker is not feasible. The Heavy Duty Feed Hopper will open wools that have not been pre-opened or that arrive at the scour preparation area as a high-density bale or tri-packed form. (Another option if bales are severely compacted or are not warmed, would be to use a Bale Breaker machine before a Feed Hopper. See Opening and Pre-cleaning.)
ANDAR offers two types of Drum Opener. Their use depends on the wool types to be processed. (Lower grade wools may have already been through a Pre-cleaning treatment.)
Double Drum Opener
Provides continuous opening and cleaning for fine wools.
Triple Drum Opener
Provides continuous opening and cleaning of coarse wools.
Feed Hopper 2
The second Feed Hopper provides a uniform even wool mat to be presented to the weighbelt and downstream scour bowls.
To present a uniform wool mat to the scour bowls.
The Weighbelt controls the flow of wool to the scouring bowls, by regulating the speed of the number one Feed hopper to ensure a continuous and even wool mat. This adds more control to the scours operation.
ANDAR offer three Scouring Systems designed to provide high levels of performance, specially based on micron and yield of the wool to be processed.
1. Top Master®
The Topmaster Scouring Systems are targeted to meet the high level of requirements when processing fine combing wools. Designed to provide high volume throughput, excellent process efficiency and superior fibre quality for all fine to superfine wool types. Topmaster is therefore suited for both commission scourers and topmakers. The Topmaster can also process coarser carding wools, offering complete processing flexibility.
The three different bowl configurations within the Topmaster group are yield dependent.
This system is the shortest of the Topmaster range, designed for high yielding fine wools it therefore starts with a shorter first scouring bowl, which can be a suint bowl.
This bowl configuration is suited for 55-70% yielding of fine wool. The first bowl can be a suint bowl.
This version is the largest of the Topmaster range catering for low yielding fine wools. The first bowl can be used for suint scouring duties.
2. Low Entanglement®
The Low Entanglement Scouring Systems are designed specifically for scouring of superfine wools by dedicated Topmakers. By using the most advanced scouring technologies, wool transportation, flow options and chemistry the entanglement of these delicate fibres is almost eliminated.
There are two different bowl configurations for a Low Entanglement line depending on the yield of the wool to be processed. These lines are aimed at Top makers processing wools of 19.5 micron and less, where ultimate performance on the card is demanded. The advantages of a Low Entanglement system are the incredible quality of the fibre presented to the card and the additional length gains from this gentle processing method.
The key variation between a Low Entanglement scour and a Topmaster scour is the use of suction drum bowls after the initial suint or greasy bowl(s).
There are three different bowl configurations for a Cardmaster, which are selected depending upon the average yield of wools to be processed.
Designed as a specialist top making system providing the absolute highest levels of performance in fibre quality, process efficiency, process control and volume throughput for all fine to superfine wool types. This six bowl line can include one suint bowl if desired.
A specialist line incorporating a seven bowl system, with the flexibility offered by two rake action bowls prior to five suction drum bowls. These ensure the medium yield loose stock wool has the bulk of the heavy contaminants and sand removed before entering the suction bowls.
3. Card Master®
The Cardmaster group of Scouring Systems handles the rigorous demands and high volume processing related with handling coarser carding and carpet wools. These high performance systems offer the ultimate in processing efficiency.
Higher yielding coarse wools can be easily processed through this tailor-made scour line. The bowl configuration has been chosen to achieve an efficient operation.
Processing coarse wools with a 55-70% yield is ideally suited for the Cardmaster medium system.
The configuration of bowls has been selected to maximise the scouring affect on lower yielding coarse wool. The first bowl of this system is the longest bowl manufactured by ANDAR to provide increased residence time and maximise dirt removal at high throughput rates.
ANDAR provide complete turn-key processing systems incorporating the latest in electrical control and instrumentation packages. Depending on the system selected the control package can be supplied with either a panel mounted touch screen or desktop PC based HMI (Human Machine Interface).
The ANDAR Control System enables full integration with the operator allowing the plant supervisor to select the processing conditions either manually or from a pre-determined recipe selection.
With integrated information captured (including batch reporting and trending functions) for future analysis, optimized processing conditions can be maintained 24 hours per day, with optional real time remote monitoring. The systems include software, which displays coloured mimic diagrams of the plant, motors and variable controls, allowing the process to be controlled and monitored from the HMI.
The variables controlled can include flows, chemical addition, speeds, temperatures and final product moisture, ensuring consistent product quality is produced around the clock. The ANDAR Control System also provides alarm monitoring, manual start/stop control and multi-level security to prevent unauthorized access.
ANDAR provides different flow options for scouring operations to minimise water usage of the plant while defining the different effluent streams. Three Stage Scouring is aimed at Topmaster fine and superfine wool scouring, while the Two Stage Scouring targets the Cardmaster coarser wool scouring.
Three Stage Scouring
Three Stage Scouring is the specialised flow configuration, utilising a combination of Suint Scouring, and Rinse bowls to maximum effect.
By using a Suint bowl, dirt and salts are removed, whilst protecting the fibres from damage or entanglement. This preservation of the fibre is maintained by ensuring the woolgrease remains present on the fibre, through operating the bowl at a temperature lower than the emulsification point of woolgrease.
The separation of scouring and rinsing functions allows improved control of liquor concentrations in the bowls and splits the effluent streams to allow dedicated treatments for each phase.
The flow principle is based upon a counter current flow, to maximise the re-use of water, while ensuring contaminants are prevented from flowing over with the wool mat.
Two Stage Scouring
Two stage scouring is the traditional flow configuration typically utilising a combination of Scour bowls followed by Rinse bowls. The separation of scouring and rinsing functions allows improved control of liquor concentrations in the bowls and splits the effluent streams to allow dedicated treatments for each phase.
The flow principle is based upon a counter current flow, to maximise the re-use of water, while ensuring contaminants are prevented from flowing over with the wool mat.
ANDAR offers two drying systems for drying of the scoured wool, being Drum Dryers and the Unidryers.
ANDAR dryers have been designed especially to cope with high throughput’s of modern wool scours, operating at high levels of energy conservation and efficiency to provide accurate control of regain to customer specified limits.
The ANDAR Drum Dryer is suitable for many different fibres and is generally the preferred option for drying of fine wools. The drum dryer may be heated by gas firing, steam or high-pressure hot water.
Each dryer is sized to suit individual drying applications while the Drum Dryer’s modular construction allows for addition of extra sections, to suit increased production requirements. There are four different sized models of the Drum Dryer designed for different applications and production rates.
- 4 Drum Dryer
- 6 Drum Dryer
- 8 Drum Dryer
- 10 Drum Dryer
The ANDAR Unidryer is suitable for drying all fibres, hanks, open weave cloth and dyed loose stock and is the preferred option when drying coarser carding wools. The material that is to be dried is positively held between two belts eliminating drop off, and providing the ability to vary fan energy, increasing efficiency and process control.
The Unidryer has been designed to be very low maintenance with no moving parts inside the drying chamber. A greater airflow can be put through the material, resulting in significantly higher evaporation rates. Four different sized models come in various widths to suit many applications and production rates.
- 2 Bay Unidryer
- 3 Bay Unidryer
- 4 Bay Unidryer
- 5 Bay Unidryer
When processing coarser carding wools in a Unidryer the addition of a Wet Feed Hopper is recommended to improve the feed to the dryer by allowing speed differences between bowls and dryer. This can lower the bed weight in the dryer allowing higher through-puts or reduced energy use. ANDAR offer two standard sizes of Wet Feed Hopper.
Designed to feed the loose stock wool into a Drum Dryer
Designed to feed the loose stock wool into a Unidryer
Moisture Measurement and Control Systems
The speed of the wool mat needs to be adjustable to guarantee maximum drying efficiencies are achieved. A complete Scourview system would control the supply of the wool mat to the Dryer.
ANDAR Dryers also have the option to be fitted with Moisture meters to track the regain of the wool exiting the Dryer. This enables better Dryer performance by adjusting the Dryers’ variables to ensure the wool exits the scouring process at the correct moisture regain.
ANDAR offer two standard systems for the post scour dedusting of wools.
Stepped Opener Duster Overall De-Dusting Process for Fine Wools
This process is preferred/recommended for finer wools. The wool exits the dryer and is fed into the infeed conveyor and nip roller. The ability to vary the speed of the infeed and drums allows the customer to control the amount of opening/dusting to preserve the fibre.
The nip roller retards the wool flow while the drums gently dust the wool. Waste removed is pneumatically conveyed to either dust bags or waste cyclone.
Stepped Opener Duster
ANDAR offer two standard sized Stepped Opener Dusters for fine wools. The selection of the number of drums is dependent upon a combination of average yield and micron of wool to be processed.
- 3 Drum
- 5 Drum
Scoured Wool Cleaner Overall De-Dusting Process for Coarse Wools
This process is preferred/recommended for coarser wools. The wool exits the dryer, and is fed by a Pinch Conveyor onto the infeed conveyor and nip roller of the Scoured Wool Cleaner. The ability to vary the speed of the infeed and the internal vanes allows the customer to control the amount of opening/dusting to maximise dusting removal.
The nip roller retards the wool flow while the internal vanes determine the residence time. The Scoured Wool Cleaner operates a helical flow path along the machine. The waste is pneumatically conveyed to a Cyclone. The Cyclone separates the fibres from the waste and this process is completed in the Fibre Recovery Unit. The recovered fibres can either be returned to the main wool flow by pneumatic transport to increase the yield or are stored separately if not required.
Scoured Wool Cleaner
There are two versions of the Scoured Wool Cleaner. The difference is related to the grate length and directly affects the throughput volume of the machines.
Fibre Recovery Unit
Designed to recover the short (noil) wool fibres from the waste stream of the Scoured Wool Cleaner.
Slipe wool or wool which is removed from pelts using a depilatory to destroy the follicle. The wool which is removed from the pelts comes either direct from the abattoir or from a fellmongery where the pelts are processed.
This process involves washing the wool once it has been removed from the skins, usually in Fellmongery processing operation to remove the gross contamination and reduce the depilatory levels, which can cause some fibre damage if left on the fibre before scouring. The section of equipment made by ANDAR starts once the wool is removed from the skin and ends with the drying of the wool. Once dried the wool is generally packed for shipping on to the traditional scouring operator for further processing.
Designed to wash the excess depilatory paint from the wool in cold water. No grease removal and only limited dirt removal takes place in this machine.
The Wet Hopper presents the wet wool creating an even uniform wool mat to the squeeze press and then on to the Drum Dryer.
Before feeding the slipe wool into the dryer excess water is squeezed out. The ANDAR Squeeze Press has been specially designed for optimum squeezing to reduce the moisture content from loose stock wool. The use of a squeeze press in this position eliminates the need for hydro-extractors and allows a continuous processing regime.
The 6 Drum Dryer selected to successfully dry slipe wool to provide a lower regain for packaging.
Pelts from an abattoir destined for the leather industry are prepared by having the wool removed from them by depilatory action. To enable the depilatory paint to work more effectively the pelts are pre-fleshed. Which involves the mechanical removal of fats from the bottom of the pelt.
To ensure effective processing, moisture is removed from the wool portion of the pelt by squeezing after the pre-fleshing process. Removing of the water at this stage reduces the weight of the pelts, improving operator handling and improving the depilatory paint reaction time.
This process involves removing the wool from the skins, usually in Fellmongery processing operation. The section of equipment made by ANDAR starts once the skin is removed from the animal and ends with the application of depilatory paint, just before the wool is removed.
The Handling Table allows the skins to be positioned and laid out speeding up the feeding of a continuous pelt processing system. The handling tables are contract specific items tailor-made for each customer’s requirements.
Skin Squeeze Press
The ANDAR Skin Squeeze Press squeezes residual water our of the wool portion of the pelts prior to the application of the depilatory. Removing of the water at this stage reduces the weight of the pelts, improving operator handling and improving the depilatory paint reaction time.
Designed to automate the even application of depilatory paint to the pelts, reducing operator fatigue and handling.